Indices of Multiple Deprivation
The indices of deprivation is a local measure of deprivation in England. Statistics are published at a small area level (lower super output area) with summary figures provided for local authority areas.

Rural-Urban Classification
The 2011 rural-urban classification for small area geographies provides a rural/urban picture at output area (OA), super output area (SOA) and ward level. A classification is also produced for local authorities classification categorises local authorities as rural or urban based on the percentage of their resident population in rural areas or ‘rural-related’ hub towns.


The English Indices of Deprivation 2019 (IoD2019) replaces the Indices of Deprivation 2015 as the government’s official measure of relative deprivation in England. It measures relative levels of deprivation in small areas called Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs).

A summary report for Northumberland has been produced which focuses on the Index of Multiple Deprivation for neighbourhoods (LSOAs) and local authority districts.

Further reports, analysis, data and interactive dashboards focusing on all domains and sub-domains of the IoD 2019 will be available here soon.

The full national Indices of Deprivation dataset, including reports and maps can be accessed from the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government.
Deprivation covers a broad range of issues and refers to unmet needs caused by a lack of resources of all kinds, not just financial. The English indices of deprivation attempt to measure a broader concept of multiple deprivation (the index of multiple deprivation or IMD), made up of several distinct dimensions or domains of deprivation. The seven domains that make up the IMD can be analysed separately to identify specific forms of deprivation experienced by people. The seven domains that make up the IMD are:
  • income deprivation domain
  • employment deprivation domain
  • health deprivation and disability domain
  • education, skills and training deprivation domain
  • barriers to housing and services domain
  • crime domain
  • living environment deprivation domain

The indices of deprivation 2015 is the latest release of information from the Department for Communities and Local Government and the documents and links on this page relate to this release. Previous data  2010 Indices of Deprivation 
The Indices of Deprivation 2010 from the Department for Communities and Local Government has been superseded by the 2015 IMD. 
Data on the 2010 IMD can still be accessed at Gov.UK
For more information on IMD maps and data, contact 
The classification defines each geographical area as either urban or rural. Urban areas are those parts of the county with a population of 10,000 or more. These domains are then sub-divided into six broad morphological types.The classification also categorises OAs based on context, i.e. whether the wider surrounding area of a given OA is sparsely populated or less sparsely populated

The following analysis and reports on the rural-urban classification have been produced for Northumberland: The factsheets contain key statistics from the census by the rural-urban classification categories.  
Additional data from Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2011

Queries or comments

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has produced a classification of the population for areas across the UK.
Using socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census, it classifies people living in different areas of the country who share similar characteristics. This helps in:
  • Identifying areas in other parts of the country with common characteristics to allow sharing of experiences and lessons learned with areas outside of Northumberland.
  • Targeting services or resources to people living in the most appropriate areas.
  • Exploring links between the characteristics of a population and the prevalence of thematic issues associated with health, crime and so on.
  • Matching the primary data gathered from a local survey against the characteristics of a population.
The classification is made up of three levels – supergroup, group and sub-group. Currently there are two classifications available - the output area classification (OAC) which provides a classification at the most local level and the local authority classification which analyses data for the 391 local authorities across the UK.

The latest classifications use data collected from the 2011 Census.
2011 output area classification (OAC) 2011 area classification for local authorities For more information, visit the ONS Area Classification website.