Advice and guidance on planning an intervention. How to Plan, Do and Review!
Having identified an area of need the next step is to plan (or
select) a suitable intervention for that individual or group with
similar needs. The intervention is then put in place and its impact
measured. It is vital that the PLAN, DO, REVIEW cycle is used. This
reflects the problem
solving process previously described.
Thought should be given not only to why an intervention is
selected, but also to the quality of delivery and the impact of the
intervention. Such evaluation is vital in not only planning next
steps but in deciding if the intervention is a useful one to use
with other individuals or groups of pupils.
You can view
a checklist for a quality intervention here
Is there a method for recording / being aware of :
All of these factors can have a major impact on the
effectiveness of an intervention and should to be taken into
account during the ‘Review’ stage of the process. There is a
Provision management record sheet that can be used to record some
of this information
Evaluation seeks to assess the impact of a defined project – a
time limited intervention in this case. There are two clear
purposes of evaluating an intervention:
Evaluation is important as it enables you to monitor
individual pupils’ progress and make informed decisions
You need to be clear about why you are evaluating; what the
results are for; who will use the results; and whether you have
chosen the most appropriate assessment tools
You need to be careful that you are measuring what you think you
are. If you use a complex questionnaire to get pupils to rate their
confidence you may end up with information which says more about
their literacy / language skills than their confidence!
Reliability is the extent to which the measure would get the
same result if you repeated it
Is the planned evaluation practical? Do you have time to collect
and interpret the information. There is no point collecting
information if you aren’t going to use it!
document contains details of the Tools to assess the impact of
An intervention’s impact should be measured in terms of how well
it achieved the objectives set for it. For example, the impact of a
reading intervention should be measured in terms of changes in
An intervention may also bring about changes in other areas (for
example children in a reading skills intervention may gain in
confidence) and these are known as unintentional impacts. However,
in the reading example, the intervention’s effectiveness is not
measured by how much pupils’ confidence increases – although this
could be an objective for the reading intervention the next time it
The objectives for an intervention should be based on the
pupils’ identified needs and what you hope the intervention will
achieve. ‘SMART’ or ‘SMARTER’ goals / targets can be used:
Specific – worded in clear language
In group interventions these may be different for each
individual and will be recorded as ‘target competencies’ (document
to be added shortly) on the Intervention
Within the provision management software there are links to
potential targets based on the National Strategies objectives for
Listening and Numeracy
(National Curriculum Levels P Scale 4- Level 5).
For pupils where unwanted behaviours are the main concern,
targets from SEAL may be appropriate where the behaviours reflect
under developed social and emotional skills. SEAL
Classroom observation checklist here.
Alternatively, it is suggested that schools work with pupils to
identify mutually agreed targets and interventions are designed /
selected to these. Behaviour
Targets for July 2009 can be viewed here.
Your school’s Educational Psychologist and / or staff from
locality based CEIT teams can work with schools on solution
oriented individual target setting with pupils. Contact details can
be found in the guide to
local support services.
Evaluations need to be planned before an intervention begins. If
we want to measure the impact an intervention is having we need to
know where skill/knowledge levels were before the intervention so
they can be compared to skill/knowledge levels after the
intervention. We also need to know how we are going to measure
In the reading example, if an intervention was designed to
increase a child’s sight word vocabulary, we would want to know how
many sight words the child knew before the intervention (the
baseline measure) so we could compare it to how many sight words
were known after the intervention. We would also need to know how
we were going to measure this.
There are a selection of methods that can be used to measure the
impact of an intervention, see ‘Tools to
assess the impact of interventions’. This provides information
about methods of assessments and potential advantages and
limitations of their use.
The National Strategies suggest considering the following in
deciding whether an intervention is effective.
Success criteria for an intervention should be:
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